The New World Order
Doctor of Fine Arts degree in the artistic discipline of Fine Arts was granted on the basis of doctoral thesis ”Peryferia” – cykl grafik (“Outskirts” - the prints cycle) , by the resolution of the Faculty Council of the Faculty of Graphic Arts of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow as of 19 November, 2009.
He is professionally associated with the Faculty of Graphic Arts of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow:
2012 – to date – Vice-Dean,
2011 – to date – Head of Drawing Studio 2,
2010 - 2011 – PhD educator in the Copperplate Studio headed by Prof. Stanisław Wejman,
1997 - 2010 – teaching assistant in the Copperplate Studio.
Pursuant to art. 16 sect. 2 of the Act amending the Act – Law on higher education as of 18 March, 2011, the Act on scientific degrees and scientific title as well as degrees and the title in the field of art as well as amending other acts. (Journal of Laws, 2011, No 84, div. 455, No 112, div. 654.), I indicate the graphic cycle entitled ”Nowy Porządek Świata (The New World Order)” as the achievement aspiring to fulfil their formal requirements.
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The series ”Nowy Porządek Świata (The New World Order)”, which is the object of this habilitation paper, consists of eleven aquatints:
NOM, 2010, 60 x 100 cm;
NOL (UFO), 2010, 60 x 100 cm;
Sepsis, 2010, 120 x 100 cm;
Eugenika, 2010, 120 x 100 cm;
Dym, 2010, 60 x 100 cm;
Bilderberg, 2011, 120 x 100 cm;
Trwoga, 2011, 60 x 100 cm;
Ropa, 2011, 120 x 100 cm;
WTC, 2011, 60 x 100 cm;
Fukushima, 2011, 60 x 98 cm;
Sztuczna mgła, 2012, 120 x 100 cm,
and it is a part of the major work additionally including twenty-two oil paintings:
Erupcja, 2010, 60 x 60 cm;
NWO, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Chemtrials, 2012, 59 x 59 cm;
Trinity, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Nevada, 2010, 61 x 61 cm;
Bez tytułu , 2010, 61 x 61 cm;
Roswell, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Nieznana forma życia, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Bez tytułu , 2010, 61 x 61 cm;
F-16, 2010, 61 x 61 cm;
Ropa, 2011, 60 x 60 cm;
Bagdad, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Kursk, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
WTC, 2011, 61 x 61 cm;
Kabul, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Zamieszki na tle rasowym, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Maszyna do robienia mgły, 2011, 61 x 61 cm;
Helium, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Żniwiarz, 2011, 60 x 60 cm;
Arabska wiosna, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Oburzeni, 2012, 60 x 60 cm;
Bez tytułu , 2010, 60 x 60 cm.
Despite content kinship of the prints and the canvases which played a decisive role in placing them within one cycle and the similarity of some works in the iconographic sphere (aquatints ”Trwoga” and ”Ropa” correspond to the oil paintings ”Bez tytułu ” and also – “Ropa”), I was never convinced that the division, though with the technological connotation, of the work into paintings, ascribed to the graphic set, and those belonging to the pictorial collection, should be abandoned. So, we deal here with two independent sets which are totally autonomous, although they concern one problem and complement each other.
In relation with the autonomy of both parts of the cycle I would like to strongly stress that the object of this habilitation paper, presenting the description of my artistic output and achievements, is exclusively the set of eleven aquatints entitled the “Nowy Porządek Świata”. Pursuant to the Act amending the Act – Law on higher education as of 18 March, 2011, the Act on scientific degrees and scientific title as well as degrees and the title in the field of art as well as amending other acts. (Journal of Laws, 2011, No 84, div. 455, No 112, div. 654.), the specification of awards, exhibitions and publications aiming at proving my significant contribution to the development of artistic discipline of Fine Arts and my meaningful artistic activity shall only refer to this set.
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Before I focus on fulfilling my duties, let me digress a little on the number of paintings in ”Nowy Porządek Świata”, treated as a collection of two sets: the graphic and the painting ones, constituting the integer of 33. It belongs to a sizeable group of numbers which is associated with a symbolic meaning, making it distinct from the other, by a variety of occult, esoteric, Kabbalistic and Satanist associations. According to my knowledge, this number is associated, for example, with the transformation of the ”good” Lucifer’s pentagram into the ”bad” Satanist Samaela-Lilith pentagram, which consists in turning the former one by 33 degrees. In turn, according to some sources, the 33rd degree has a special meaning in the Masonic symbolism of the Grand Orient where it is the highest and perfect level of initiation. In esoteric tradition the number of 33 alongside other numbers, consisting of the same digits, is defined as the “master number” – I have no idea what is the reason for that. However, please, focus your attention that the number of aquatints - 11, and canvasses - 22, also make the “master numbers”. Their juxtaposition gives the 1:2 ratio, used as the ratio of the width to the length of the Polish military flag, the flag of the Russian Federation from 1937 to 1993, British Union Jack, flags of Ireland, Guyana, the Philippines, Samoa, Honduras, Croatia, Montenegro and now defunct Yugoslavia, Latvia, Belarus, Dagestan, Abkhazia, Kazakhstan, Democratic and later the Islamist Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Kalmykia, Chukchi Autonomous District, Ingushetia, Hawaii, Gagauzia Autonomous Territory, and a few more countries which are for us exotic, as well as ingredients of the medicinal cocktail of carrot and spinach by Prof. Tombak. According to this ratio, the total number of the ”New World Order” painting cycle may be juxtaposed with the number of 66 – also the “master” one, which closes up the numeric string of the “Terminal” series created in 2004 - 2006.
I would like to stress here that I have not planned the execution of just eleven prints and twenty-two paintings. In mid-August 2012, a few days after completing the last painting about which I was convinced that it should appear in the collection, I broke the fifth metacarpal bone of the right hand. So, I was unable to continue my work on the cycle which should have been larger as I had assumed till that moment. After two-year work on the series whose theme is the conspiracy theory of history, this unusual course of events cannot be a haphazard…
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I am sorry for this not so serious digression which, I think, introduces us in a light way in the paranoiac mood of this endeavour, and I come back to the specification which should describe the formal requirements which the Act imposes on the habilitation paper.
As I underlined above, they will concern eleven aquatints included in the graphic part of the ”New World Order”.
2011 – Guanlan International Print Prize for „NOL (UFO)” – at: 3rd Guanlan International Print Biennial, Guanlan, Shenzhen, China;
2012 – Grand Prix for the set „Sepsis”, „Bilderberg”, „Sztuczna mgła” – at: 8th Polish Print Triennial, Katowice, Poland.
Publications and Exhibitions:
2012 – Tokyo Print 2012 / International Print Exhibition, Japan Print Association, Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, Japan;
2012 – International Print Triennial, Cracow, Poland; ISBN 978-83-88890-52-9
2012 – Grafika i edukacja. Polskie uczelnie artystyczne, Cracow, Poland;
2012 – International Print Exhibition, Yunnan, China; ISBN 978-7-5489-0780-0
2012 – 8th Polish Print Triennial, Katowice, Poland; ISBN 978-83-88254-69-7
2012 – Fusion / International Contemporary Intaglio Print Invitation Exhibition,
Guanlan, China; ISBN 978-988-16336-4-4
2012 – Daniec - Świętek, Koszarowa 19 Gallery, Academy of Fine Arts, Katowice, Poland;
2011 – 3rd Guanlan International Print Biennial, Guanlan, Shenzhen, China;
2011 – International Print Triennial Imprint 2011, Warsaw, Poland;
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I mentioned above about ”technological” connotations, playing a decisive role in the division of the cycle into graphic and painting sets. It seems– and this is a generally accepted opinion – that the graphic domain called printmaking, and the metal techniques in particular, is the discipline where the technological aspect has a specific if not a dominant role among the components consisting of the creative process. Due to – as it is believed – the key position of the technology in the act of creating an image, this factor stands out graphics from other domains of visual art, particularly from traditional ones.
I believe that such a statement – being almost a canon in formulating statements on graphic or broadly understood artistic activities – cannot be accepted uncritically. It seems that it has been formulated by people which came into contact with graphics in terms of theory, but they have not deepened their knowledge on its practical part. As a person aspiring to be named a professional, I believe that this canon is a faulty and far from truth. In order to justify my opinion I have to adopt a personal point of view according to which technology is totally transparent in the process of creating an image. The transparency of the intaglio technique equals the transparency of the drawing, painting or other techniques, which become, simply speaking, an element of the formal language of the artistic message. You may use it in a variety of ways, including in an awkward one if the knowledge is inadequate. The skilful use of the language does not mean, of course, that the process of creation of the image is deprived of the element of a surprise, unpredictability or, finally, incompatibility with the initial vision, or not accomplishing the assumptions. All of those extremely valuable and desirable phenomena which reveal the mystery of the creative processes do not result from technological incapacity. Preserving the remnants of the common sense, I am not tempted to try to find the answer to the question: what is the Mystery and from what it results?
If the question on the identity of graphics matters at all, I would be tempted to adopt the view that the matrix is a decisive element. Being reluctant to any definitions I believe that attempts at defining graphics going beyond this most important element for my part involve the question what graphics can be, but does not have to be.
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All of the prints from the ”New World Order” cycle have been executed in the aquatint technique. Grains deposited on the metal surface with the use of pressurized bitumen mass intended for maintenance of car chassis were the main method of its application. The use of this method, rapid but quite aggressive in comparison with classical way consisting in free dropping of powdered rosin on the surface of the matrix placed in the box, seemed to me necessary for eliciting a simple feedback of what was supposed to be on the images with what they were supposed to concern. In other words, I insisted on the interaction between the following spheres: formal, iconographic and meaningful.
I am inclined to claim that the image speaks its own language, and its translation into the verbal language is associated with inevitable loss of its artistic message which is not subject to such a translation. However, in the discussed series there is such a sphere which requires broader discussion, i.e. its content.
In the further part of this paper I would like to concentrate on the reference areas of the ”New World Order”.
“¿Quién carajo hizo esto? – balbuceó, conteniendo la náuesea.
– Yo qué sé – dijo el churre –. Por qué me carajea a mí, qué culpa tengo. Agradezeca que fuera a visarle.”
Mario Vargas Llosa “¿Quién mató a Palomino Molero?”
The desire to understand the mechanisms governing the world and your own role in it is the basis of human consciousness. It assemblies all accessible information into a possibly the most coherent vision of reality. If accessible knowledge, based on the facts is not sufficient for its fulfilment, culture which fills in the shortcomings of the conception built only on empirical experience turns out to be a useful tool. In this sense, culture in its entirety is an adaptative tool to the conditions of existence.
The more elements of the observed reality cannot be convincingly explained on the basis of verifiable information, the more chaos and uncertainty are included in the conception of the world built in such a manner.
It becomes a conflict with the tendency to discover order and rules. Their knowledge is the condition for the human existence. The consciousness which does not know the rules of the world where it exists is doomed for failure. If the rules cannot be discovered, it creates its own ones which should correspond to the reality as they are verified.
The verification may be a long process within which the rules not corresponding to the truth are rejected (sometimes painfully as the falls of civilisations, religions, nations) and replaced by others. It is a constant process. History of culture shows that there are no rules which do not undergo verification. So, even rules deemed as true shall remain to be true till new rules, which shall be discovered, undermine them.
Initially, the concept of the world probably did not assume the distinction of the empirical knowledge and the one independent from experience. Such a distinction emerged with the development of beliefs: the world of the living and the world of the dead, the people and the animalistic spirits, mortals and gods, etc. The boundaries of those spheres were open and those worlds could permeate each other.
Originally, the forces governing the world acted explicitly: in the “Iliad” gods openly engage in the two sides of the conflict in order to gradually stay behind the scenes and from there to pull strings: Oedipus is no longer aware of the incumbent curse on him.
In Judaism and Christianity the work of forces behind the scenes served comforting the misfortunate human existence. It fulfilled the desire to throw away the responsibility for failures and misfortunes to independent factors which could not be influenced, and it promised post-mortal compensation. But, the social elite, as usual, found justification for their privileged status. You can notice the process of removing the causative forces in the sphere of unattainable cognition in those religions: Adam directly speaks to God, Biblical patriarchs only hear the voice, they see the burning bush or other miraculous signs, or they receive instructions “from above” by the mediation of angelic messengers. After the death of Jesus, they receive only oral or written communications, or vague revelation.
As the rules developed by religions were verified and the number of available information significantly increased which often was incompatible, the view of the reality became more and more complex and more and more difficult to grasp totally within a uniform concept. Continuously growing amount of data, whose understanding required more and more expertise, led to emerging of theories which explained the past and on-going phenomena by the work of secret forces, conspiring behind the façade of the official versions of events.
The conspiracy theory of history, in its full form and with its many aspects existing nowadays, was born in 18th c. This age may be called the beginning of the modern era. Only then with the recognition of natural and social sciences, the systematization of cartography, Alessandro Malaspina’s, de Bougainville’s, Cook’s or Alexander von Humboldt’s expeditions, the creation of newspapers, the Declaration of Independence, the French Revolution and final domination of Western culture and economy over other civilizations, the boundaries of the world were clearly marked. Also then, with the expansion of the British Empire, domination over the world by one state or a powerful organization became possible. Before the 18th c. the emerging of a global conspiracy would not be possible. It was in this century when the Templars, Masons, Jesuits, Jews and the Illuminates became classic heroes of the conspiracy theories.
On 15 July, 1099, the army of the First Crusade, led by Godfrey de Bouillon, captured Jerusalem. A small group of knights who took part in the expedition and who were the youngest sons of good, but poor families and did not have interesting prospects for returning home, decided to stay there and establish an order of knights to protect pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. They called themselves Fratres Militiae Templi, Pauperes Commilitones Christi Templique Salomonis – The Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Salomon.
In 1118, 1119 or 1120, Hugues de Payens, a knight from the Champagne, and his companions made vows of poverty, chastity, obedience and the fight for the faith by the Cistercian rule before the patriarch of Jerusalem. They received Al-Aqsa mosque, standing on the Temple Mount, which was later rebuilt as a church, and a castle located nearby, which became their headquarters, from Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem.
Thanks to numerous money and land donations the order soon became rich. Its members proved to be good soldiers, managers and merchants. Retaining personal poverty, they became first Christian ship owners and bankers. When in 1291 the Kingdom of Jerusalem fell, the Templars, deprived of their headquarters, moved to Cyprus and then to France.
At that time after the costly wars for the territory of the Aquitaine and Flanders the King of France and Navarre Philip IV called the Fair by all means tried to fill the empty treasury. He tried to collect inter alia taxes from clergy which led the Pope Boniface VII to outrage and then to threaten the king with excommunication. Philip the Fair withdrew from his plans, but he ordered his counsellor William of Nogaret to prepare an accusation aiming at discrediting the Pope. Nogaret resorted to the traditional set of accusations then: heresy, simony, contacts with the devil and sodomy. He also added his own accusation that Boniface believed that the French have no souls. Surely, not all of the allegations were true, but some of them had to be so compelling that after imminent death of Boniface, Philip was able to push through the election of one of his supporters as a new Head of the Apostolic See
which in 1309 moved to Avignon. Pope Clement V, being dependent from the king, approved all of his ideas, also including the recovery of the immense debt which Philip the Fair made in the Templars at the time when Boniface VIII was leading the See of Saint Peter.
The charges against the Templars were made by the abbot of Montfaucon, Esquien de Floyran. He also used the typical set of accusations at that period, cast on all political opponents, this time supplemented with infanticide, denial of Christ, desecration of the cross, worship of idols in the form of a cut head, cats and Baphomet, conspiring with the Saracens and the practice of usury. As a result of the process many members of the order were imprisoned, tortured and executed, including almost all of its superiors. Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, confessed the alleged crime while tortured. When later he recanted his testimony, the king ordered to burn him at the stake. The judgement was executed in Paris on 18 March, 1314. In the same year Philip the Fair suffered a stroke and died afterwards. After his death Clement V proclaimed the innocence of the order, but considering it to be too discredited to perform original functions, he decided to dissolve it.
The legend about the de Molay’s curse, cast from the stake on the Capetian dynasty, and the Holy Grail, guarded by the Templars, was the XVII century product. The myth about the roots of the masonry, established by the Templars, who fled from persecution to Scotland, officially appeared on 21 March, 1737. Cavalier Andrew Michael Ramsay, one of the founders of the Scottish Rite in France, mentioned it in his speech delivered before the Grand Lodge.i
For a young Association, which Freemasonry was in the first half of the 18th century, the idea of relatedness to the medieval order of Knights was extremely tempting. The first Scottish lodges have developed good business only about 1717, and when twenty years later they began to accept rich burghers in their ranks, the demand for the noble and an ancient pedigree grew rapidly. Freemasonry was born in the bosom of Catholicism after 1688, when the unpopular Catholic King of England, James II Stuart, was deprived of the throne by his Protestant son-in-law William II of Orange and fled to France under the protection of Louis XIV. He shared efforts to regain the throne with cultivating the rite of Rose Croix de Heredim de Kilwinning which was popular among its Scottish and Welsh supporters.
One of the first masons operating in France was Charles Radclyffe, lord Derwentwater. He founded the first French lodge in Dunkirk, in addition to the English and Irish emigration, associating with local supporters of the Stuarts. When Derwentwater returned to his homeland to fight back against the new dynasty, Louis Antoine de Pardaillan, the Marquis de Gondrin, became the head of the French Freemasonry, and later was accused of being an agent of the Society of Jesus, having the task of arousing conflicts and breaking down the Freemasonry. In 1743, count Louis de Bourbon-Conde became the next Grand Master. The Association was then divided into clashing fractions, for the time being only in polemics. In 1765, celebration of the winter solstice ended with a fight of members of various lodges and obedience, forcing the head of the Parisian police, Gabriel de Sartine, who was himself a Freemason, to issue a ban on organising meetings. In 1771, Louis-Philippe of France, Prince of Orleans, took up the direction of the Grand Lodge. He was to direct Freemasonry to prepare and carry out the Grand Revolution, as a result of which the power would be in his hands.
According to supporters of the conspiracy theories, La Révolution française is the most significant achievement of Freemasonry. The action of secret forces in a conspiracy against the monarchy arose with particular clarity in the two most important events at the beginning of the revolution and the decisive battle for its survival: the capture of the Bastille, the attack on the Versailles and the defeat of ravenous women coming for the relief of the King, i.e. the Austro-Prussian army at the battle of Valmy.
Storming of the Bastille was actually initiated by the supporters of Duke of Orleans, and we should look for his motives in his ambitions to take over some of the nominal influence of Louis XVI and the strengthening of his position in reform circles. The dismissal of the Royal Minister of the Treasury, contrary to the recommendations of States General was the pretext that sparked concern in Parisians. It was a Swiss banker Jacques Necker, who was leading unreasonable credit policy and ruined the French economy, but gained a huge popularity among merchants and artisans. Residents of the capital believed that the King seeks a way to dissolve the Parliament and send its members to their provinces by this dismissal. The fourteenth of July 1789, the angered crowds gathered in the gardens of the Palais Royal, before the Prince's residence, the place occupied before by prostitutes and unemployed people. The prince’s agitator Camille Desmoulins spoke to them, bringing the vision of the pogrom which the squads of the guard of Louis XVI would make to the reformers, led the crowds to boiling. The incited crowd marched to the Bastille, for the first time openly denouncing obedience to the King. At the news of capturing the fortress, the monarch urged Necker to see again about the public finances.
In October they were in such a terrible condition, that there were not enough means for the purchase of grain for the people of the capital. Desperate crowds arriving to Versailles from Paris, took Louis and Marie Antoinette out of the Palace and led them back to the city, keeping "under guard by the people" in the Tuileries Palace. The fate of the King was not yet decided. The Jacobin party led by Robespierre, fearing conflict with the rest of the European countries, resisted Marat’s and Danton 's aspirations to the immediate overthrowing the monarchy. The Legislative Assembly began work on introduction of the monarchic-parliamentary system, developed on the basis of the Constitution adopted by the States-General. The System survived less than a year, because on 15 July 1792, the Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian forces, Charles Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick, announced the armed intervention in the case the Royal family would suffer even the least insult. This declaration was considered the proof of conspiring with foreign powers by Louis. The revolutionaries stormed the Tuileries Palace, lunched the service, soldiers and members of the Court, and the Royal couple was sent to prison. Before this occurred, Louis XVI signed the declaration of war, the act directed against his relative, the Emperor of Austria. He reckoned that the weak Republican Army would quickly be defeated by the enemy, which should soon occupy France and restore him to power.
On 20 September, 1792, an event which played a decisive role in the success or collapse of the revolution occurred. The French troops and the Prussian-Austrian forces faced each other in the village of Valmy. The course and the result of the battle was considered suspicious by many. Formed from fresh recruitment, the unskilled Republican infantry fled before the Prussians, who, showered with bullets of French cannon, left on the field only 184 killed. Despite this the army of Prussia, then the most effective in Europe, withdrew, leaving the French a free field. The explanation of such events was the access of the commanders-in-chief of both armies, General Dumouriez and Charles Wilhelm to the Masonic lodge. The Prince, highly placed in the structures of Freemasonry, could accept his own defeat, serving the implementation of the Pan-European conspiracy, from the hand of General, the sycophant of the Duke of Orleans, the Grand Master of the French lodge.
There is, however, another explanation of the reason of the victory of the theoretically weaker French over the disciplined army of the opponent. Each of the army, facing each other, had something that the opponent did not have. In the absence of the officer corps, whose well-born members fearing reprisal just fled to the Court of the Roman Catholic Emperor of Austria, the French were led by talented non-commissioned officers who desired military fame. The revolutionary army had well-organised artillery, equipped with just improved light canons. The opponent, except the French and Prussian immigrants who were faithful to the King, dragged a dysentery epidemic. Duke of Brunswick, who commanded the Austrians who suffered from diarrhoea problems and dehydration, was glad of the fact of losing, because it gave him an excellent excuse to tactical retreat and the chance for a quick treatment in the family estate.
As a result, apart from the fact that there is no evidence on the access of Dumouriez and Charles Wilhelm to any of the lodges, the description of the above events does not provide grounds for the findings that Freemasonry stood behind the French Revolution. However, as any conspiracy theory this story "nicely closes" by sending the Royal family to a former medieval fortress of the Templar Knights Order, known as the Temple. There, it was waiting for the process, as a result of which Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were guillotined.ii
Adam Weishaupt was born on 6 February 1748 in Ingolstadt in Bavaria. He was educated at the Jesuits, but from his early years he remained under the influence of his grandfather, the Headmaster of the local primary school, a libertine and anticlerical. After graduation he applied for inclusion in the Department of Canon Law at the local University, which he managed, finally, to take over in 1775. He quickly fell into conflict with the Catholic authorities of the University, which accused him of teaching rationalism and deism. His unwillingness to Catholicism, and especially the Jesuits, learned in the junior secondary school, made him feel that he needed to organise a party, which would support him in academic conflicts. Masons, being watched closely, have lost their aura of mystery surrounding them. On 1 May, 1776, he founded an association called Bund der Perfektibilisten (the Order Perfecting the Knowledge), whose members called themselves the Illuminates. In the beginning, it consisted of five people. After three years, it established lodges in four Bavarian cities, and 54 participants took part in its meetings. The ideology of the Group contained elements of republicanism and the philosophy of John James Rousseau, whose books were banned in Bavaria then. It rejected all forms of occultism, cabbalistic and esoteric practices, relying mainly on the Enlightenment rationalism. Despite these declarations, Weishaupt, a staunch opponent of the Jesuits, established a hierarchical structure of his grouping, following the principles of the Society of Jesus, deemed then, just after its dissolution, an extremely dangerous conspiracy.
In 1777, Weishaupt, together with other Illuminates joined the Theodor zum guten Rath Masonic Lodge, with the intent to subjugate the already stabilized Freemasonry. However, as a person deprived of financial resources, the real power and – above all – life experience, he was not able to realize his plan. Just the influence by the idea of Baron Adolf von Knigge, a wealthy man and known in the milieu of the German masons, has boosted revenues and the Association development. Baron brought to it the prestige of the aristocrat, and also signs of lavishness and luxury, so that in a short time it reached the number of over five hundred members. Finally, after capturing the Masonic Lodges existing in the surrounding princedoms, the Illuminates soon had 266 chapters.
In 1782, during the great international congress of the Masonic order in Wilhelmsbad, Weishaupt and Kniegge announced that the Illuminates were the only true Freemasonry. The Association already gained so high reputation that most of the participants joined it. Many prominent Freemasons, including Goethe, whose Faust is the history of the later disillusioned ex-adept, became the Illuminates. Outside Germany the Association covered Austria, Russia, Poland, Sweden, Denmark and Hungary. Then, among the members of the conspiracy the guess that the lodge, experiencing a period of prosperity, was led by some hidden leadership appeared. Baron was the figure too well known not only in Masonic circles, but in the official milieus so that to play such a role. Weishaupt, in turn, at closer inspection, was a buffoon difficult to put up with and a man of provenience too common to act as a grand leader, surrounded by the aura of the mystery. The milieu saw Voltaire in this role, who was worshiped by all freemasons and libertines and his protector, Friedrich II, the King of Prussia.
Meanwhile, as it frequently happens in situations when two people of different natures and social position share one post, there was a great quarrel between Weishaupt and von Kniegge. In July 1784, offended Weishaupt left the Association and took efforts to make contact with the Bavarian elector Charles Theodor and obtain his protection. These actions coincided with the release of prohibition to join secret societies. It was the restriction of a general nature, having in mind the indivisibility of the princely power and not specifically directed against the Freemasons and the Illuminates. However, perhaps under the influence of the Jesuit confessor, in March 1785, the elector not only rejected the proposal of Weishaupt, but released a new decree, threatening this time directly the Illuminates.
The police made the search in the house of Xavier von Zwack, a member of the Duke’s Council and at the same time the Secretary of the Order. Many documents which were later published as Einige Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens, welche bei dem gewesenen durch vorgenommene Hausvisitation zu Landshut Regierugsrath Zwack den 11. und 12. Oktober 1786 vorgefunden worden (Some authentic writings of the order of the Illuminates found in the House the Government's counsellor Zwick at the time of the inspection carried out in Landshut on 11 and 12 October, 1786) were confiscated. Among them there were such as the calling for self-determination for the members of the order with regard to life and death, articles in defence of atheism, the proposal to establish a female wing of the Organization which was unusual in those days, a project to create a machine for destroying secret documents in the case of the search, the recipe for poisonous cosmetics and also the paragon for carrying out the illegal abortion. The question of abortion directly touched Weishaupt as the treatment was the result of his romance with the sister of his wife. Spreading of these revelations put the Association in the heavy state of embarrassment to the Roman Catholic Court. The Illuminates were removed from the political scene, and our hero lost his Department and was removed from the University.
In 1787, he settled down in Gotha, where he devoted himself to writing the sublime work about the noble nature of the Association and its purposes, which were meant to be an introduction to his defence and whitewashing. The need to maintain a growing family made Weishaupt mitigate his religious and political views in his subsequent texts. After 1787, he cut all ties with the conspiracy associations and returned to the bosom of the Catholic Church. He died in 1811, and as a meritorious parishioner and defender of the faith.
Even during his lifetime, during the peak of cooperation with Baron von Kniegge, the legend of the Illuminates about their role and possibilities began to grow. The order, gaining more and more followers, became at the same time the object of resentment not only from Catholic milieus, but also from those associated with esoteric factions of the masonic mainstream. They thought that after outlawing, the organization went to a deep conspiracy, organizing a network of informants and provocateurs subject to secret management. Its members were also supposed to penetrate the circles of the political and economic elites of the United States and most European countries. This idea, not only expired, but over the years, strengthened. Currently, it occupies an important place in the conspiracy theory called the New World Order, where the Illuminates are a group of influential personalities controlling the world behind the scenes.iii
At the end of the 19th century Tsar's Russia was breaking down under the weight of economic and demographic problems, and existing model of the Empire was subject to gradual deconstruction. Struggling with revolutionary currents, getting more and more powerful, czarism was strongly looking for themes soothing growing discontent of the society. In such cases, anti-Semitism and the handy motif of Jewish responsibility for any mishaps affecting the State and its indigenous people have always proved to be helpful.
The Minister of the Interior Affairs, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev, who disposed of the large police system, ordered his people to carry out a wide-ranging action, steering the public dissatisfaction to Jews. Police actions reached the receptive audience, so that in the years 1881-1884 there was a series of over two hundred pogroms throughout Russia. A convenient excuse for their triggering was the participation of a Russian Jewish Hesi Helfman, nihilist, in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II. In 1882, the Law of May was published, pursuant to which Jews were banned the right to hold land, their villages were liquidated and they were shut down in ghettos. The troops of General Drenbien, that supported murders, rapes and robberies carried out by Russian peasants, were designated.
The massive exodus of Russian Jews became of interest to the opinion circles of Western Europe. It was fostered by the Dreyfus affair, which became the cause of serious political and social crisis in France.
In 1894 Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery officer, was accused of treason for the benefit of Germany on the basis of the crafted evidence and the military court sentenced him to life in prison on the Île du Diable in the penal colony in French Guiana. When the fraud was revealed and propagated, and the famous open letter "J'accuse ...!" by Emile Zola was published, the command of the army tried to cover up the matter and hide their errors. The judgment for Dreyfus was maintained, and Zola was forced to leave the country.
The case was a reflection of the divisions in the French society, running between right-wing and monarchist circles centred around the Jesuit journal La Libre Parole, and heavily anti-church republican vertebrae. There were also common anti-Semitic sentiments of great importance, which were caused by bankruptcy of the Union Générale, the financial institution associated with the Church, which was to support the Jewish financiers, controlling French banks. The publication of "La France Juive” (“Jewish France") by Edouard Drumont, the writer, editor of La Libre Parole and nationalist, contributed to the deepening of the divisions.
In 1906, as a result of the pressure of the public opinion and the proof of the guilt of major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, the Highest Court of Appeal annulled the judgment, whitewashing Dreyfus, promoting him to the rank of colonel and awarding him the Cross of the Legion of Honour. As a result of the scandal, the extreme right has been pushed to the margins of the French political scene, and in 1905 regulations for separation of the Church and the State and the civilian control of the army entered into force.
Meanwhile, Russian intelligence service could not idly watch the growing criticism of Tsarist regime. Okhrana ordered Matviei Vasilievitch Golovinski, its agent, valued for good writing skills, to draw up a false document slandering Judaism and justifying the barbaric actions of Russia.
Golovinski manufactured the text of the alleged Jewish conspiracy project to conquer the world. The content of the document was a fairly faithful adaptation of the "Dialogue aux enfers entre Montesquieu ou la politique de Machiavelli et au XIXe siècle par un contemporain de Machiavelli" pamphlet by French satirist Maurice Joly, which attacked the political ambitions of Napoleon III. The brochure by Joly was an adaptation of the popular novel fragment of "Les Mystères du peuple” by Eugène Sue, where the Jesuits were conspirators, and Jews in general did not appear. Sue, in turn, took its cue from the scene of the “Joseph Balsamo" novel by Alexander Dumas, where Cagliostro and his mason companions plan to intrigue with the diamond necklace of the Queen.
Yet in 1868 the "Dialogues" by Joly were included in the book "Biarritz" written by the anti-Semite and agent of the Prussian intelligence Hermann Goedsche, which was released under the name Sir John Retcliffe. In the chapter, "The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of the Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel", the secret kahal has meetings every one hundred years at the Prague cemetery to coordinate the Jewish conspiracy. The book was translated into Russian in 1872, and the Okhrana considered it a useful tool to discredit all reformers and revolutionaries infringing the established political order.
The text by Golovinski, entitled "Dialogues", appeared in 1895, and from 1897 it began to be distributed as the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion". After 1905, in which the reformers managed to push through a Constitution and create Duma, the reactionary party Black Sotnia in co-operation with Okhrana accused the "International Jewish conspiracy" of trying to destroy Russia and the whole Christianity. The action of mass distribution of the "Protocols", which became a propagandistic support for the next wave of pogroms of 1903-1906 to distract public opinion from social activism, was launched.
From this moment the "Protocols" were published in numerous editions in many languages and despite various denouncing publications, they are even today believed to be a historical truth by various anti-Semitic milieus. Due to the pressure of Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Muslim Brotherhood, some Arabic Governments added their content to school curricula , and in Japan discussions were published in which the admiration for Jewish conspiracy and the suggestions that the Japanese should follow it to get similar power were expressed.iv
New World Order
New world order (Latin. Novus Ordo Mundi) is the term used to describe significant changes in international politics after the end of World War I, making up through the implementation of the fourteen points by Thomas Woodrow Wilson, the creation of the League of Nations, the United Nations, and also in relation to the political forces in the world, which had formed in the 1950s of 20th century and later in the mid-1980s when Ronald Reagan announced the dominance of the United States in the cold war struggle with the Soviet Union. After the end of the cold war, the term New World Order was used by Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush, and by many other members of the Club Bilderberg, the Trilateral Commission and the Council for Foreign Relations of the US Government, to determine the current directions of global policy.
Since 1782 on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States, there has been a Latin maxim "novus ordo seculorum" (the new order of the ages), taken from the fourth Idyll by Virgil. It alludes to "the beginning of the new American era", following the announcement of the Declaration of Independence. Adherents of conspiracy theories erroneously translate it as the "new world order". There is also an unfinished pyramid with thirteen layers of rock blocks, at the base of which the Roman numerals of the year 1776 were placed. In the area where there should be the top of the pyramid, there is the "Eye of Providence". In addition, on the reverse there is still the motto “Annuit Coeptis” of Virgil's Aeneid ("God looked favourably on our project").
Since 1935, both sides of the great seal have been placed on the reverse of one-dollar banknote. The importance of the front is obvious: the Eagle is a widely known national symbol, and the shield on its breast is to evoke the State flag. The symbolism of the reverse is more mysterious. Many see references to Masonic iconography, and especially the Illuminates’ conspiracy in the image of the eye at the top of the pyramid. In the culture of the West, this symbol appeared for the first time in the 17th century, but has its source in the Egyptian mythology and the image of the eye of Horus. Paintings of the 17th century sometimes show it being surrounded by clouds. Later the image of the eye closed in the triangle began to be perceived as a symbol of the Holy Trinity. The illustrator Pierre Eugène du Simitière, who was entrusted with the execution of the project, was the most likely person to suggest placing it on the stamp. A Nimbus with thirteen stars on the averse also raises the controversy. Some researchers claim that the financial genius and the banker of American Revolution contributed to the project of the seal. He was a Jew, and the stars in the field over the head of the eagle make the form of the David’s Star.
The conviction of the existence of a secret organization that intends to take power over the entire planet, through the establishment of a "World Government" is the basis for conspiracy theories about the introduction of the New World Order. The creation of organizations such as the League of Nations, the UN, the World Trade Organization (WTO), NATO or the Bretton Woods system and the International Monetary Fund were the expression of commitment to this state of affairs. In the 20th century many influential politicians used the term "New World Order", what triggered suspicions that the efforts to introduce "new deal" have already been initiated.
Increasing globalization and integration in the framework of organizations such as the European Union, NAFTA or the African Union, make the New World Order become a reality before our very eyes. There are voices, that the connection of fundamentalist groups in the world Government, which will cover the whole planet with the political, economic and military and ideological power will be the end of this process. The motivation for the establishment of the NWO is idealistic. Its architects assume that owing to it the lasting peace, justice and economic development will reign in the world.
However, proponents of conspiracy theories emphasize that the essence of such a world will be the central planning, which always encouraged the emergence of totalitarian regimes in history. The new law must have a common surveillance, implanting people chips under the skin and imprisoning them in large cities-behemoths, joined by the network of motorways. The system already introduced will collect all the information about individuals owing to the cashless system of traded goods and services, in which the purchase of the product will be registered and marked automatically assigned to biometric identity card containing data of a specific person. A regular feature of the concept is the claim that the introduction of the new order and its functioning will only be possible with a significant reduction in the global population. The number of the population would be reduced, according to various estimates, from 25 to 50 per cent. The way to achieve this would be a deliberate launch of a pandemic and, successively, spraying chemicals in the atmosphere, deregulating fertility and debilitating resistance, which would decimate nations around the world. Global epidemics of swine or avian flu, would be in that light, the testing of viruses grown in secret laboratories.
Spraying large quantities of harmful chemicals is done by devices mounted in most passenger and military aircrafts. The products of their activities are artificially induced streaks of condensation, the so-called chemtrails, visible behind a flying plane.
The extreme version of the theory maintains that the New World Order was imposed by a severe alien civilization, whose representatives have maintained contacts with the elite of mankind. Only carefully selected group of the Illuminates, who are members of Club Bilderberg, belong to this narrow group.
The Group Bilderberg brings together influential people in the world of business, politics, finance, industry, members of European royal houses scattered around the world who once a year flock to one of the exclusive resorts of the world, in order to discuss current issues. The first meeting of this type took place in Hotel de Bilderberg (hence the group name) in Oosterbeek in May 1954 and it was held at the initiative of the influential Polish politics and immigrant Joseph Retinger. Club Bilderberg conferences are held in the presence of selected journalists, but as they promise discretion, they do not relate about the course and the content of the debates. This should explain the lack of interest of the media in group meetings consisting of 120 prominent members of the global elite.
Although the group claims that it exchanges only the informal views on World Affairs, its recommendations often are implemented. The Idea of the United Europe, and previously the common European market, realized by the Treaty of Rome, or starting diplomatic relations with China by the United States, were the subject of discussion during the classified meetings of the Club, before they were implemented in the official policy.v
In 1937, the Du Pont chemical company patented the technology of industrial production of paper from pulp and fibres from crude oil. The new technology was expensive and polluted the environment, so it's no surprise that it was losing with the cheap and ecological method of paper making from hemp fibres. The paper obtained from hemp was characterized by high durability and it was resistant to yellowing. In 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of independence of the United States on it. Till 1937, from 75 to 95 per cent of paper was produced from hemp. You can obtain from 8 to 20 tons of dry fibre from one hectare of crops in just 120 days. For comparison, a similar amount of wood cellulose can be obtained from ca. four hectares of forest, growing at least 8-9 years (a variety of so called Hybrid poplar). This gives a result from about 1500 to 8000 trees needed for its production, by the additional need to use many of the harmful chemicals.
This technology became profitable thanks to the Federal law prohibiting the cultivation of hemp, adopted by Congress on August 2, 1937. Harry Jacob Anslinger, the first Director of the Federal Office for Drugs from 1930, was its author and proponent. Anslinger was recommended for the position by Andrew Mellon , a former Secretary of the Treasury, billionaire, owner of Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh which credited Du Pont group.
The first State law prohibiting smoking of marijuana, which appeared at the beginning of the 20th century in the United States, targeted against the Mexicans, but with the introduction of prohibition, its demand has grown rapidly. Marijuana has become a part of the black “culture of Jazz ", which strengthened its racist connotations.
In the 30's of the 20th century, the political climate favoured racism not only in Europe, but also in the United States. A newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst’s tabloid press was full of sensational articles about Blacks and Latinos, who raped white women and killed men under the influence of marijuana. Information from the newspapers were helpful for Anslinger in persuading Congress to adopt the Bill completely prohibiting the cultivation and use of cannabis. Work on it was classified to the point that even doctor and lawyer William c. Woodward, Chair of the American Medical Association (AMA), only after its announcement realized that cannabis, widely used to produce medicines obtained from hemp by doctors - soothing the symptoms and supporting therapy of many diseases, was outlawed. Therefore, the beneficiaries of the Act were also the chemical-pharmaceutical companies, like producing aspirin German Bayer GmbH, or British Boots Ltd., the manufacturer of ibuprofen.
The consumption of prescribed drugs is the third after alcohol and smoking cause of death as a result of the use of chemical substances in the United States. The same statistics do not record any deaths as a result of smoking cannabis.
The first research on the influence of the use of marijuana for health were carried out on behalf of the British Government in 1895. Since then, dozens of them have been completed. There were no findings that they lead to physical addiction as in the case of "hard" drugs. The lethal dose of this plant is ⅓ of the weight of the human body, and man dies then from carbon monoxide poisoning, and not from its psychoactive substances. Of course, as other substances as chocolate or coffee, hemp can be mentally addictive. The thesis about clear trend of marijuana smokers to start "hard" drugs, raised by supporters of maintaining the ban, was not so far confirmed in scientific research.
In 1961, at the request of the United States, the United Nations have established the Union Drug Convention, a resolution prohibiting the cultivation of hemp, even the industrial one, containing less than 0.2 per cent of psychoactive substances, which has been signed by 60 member delegations. The United States had an immense force of pressure, then keeping the building of the United Nations in New York and donating financial means to its budget in order to ensure the functioning of the organization. In addition, the American Government was more and more seriously considering the abolition of the gold standard against the dollar, which caused panic mainly among European countries, whose finances were related with American currency exchange rate. The Ministers and Prime Ministers were ready to meet any demands of the Washington administration, in exchange for keeping the relationship of the dollar to gold resources, stored at Fort Knox. Thanks to this game, Americans realized many political and economic objectives of different calibre, and nevertheless, after achieving them, the parity was abolished in 1971.
The "war on drugs", started in 1973 by the administration of President Nixon, even more tightened restrictions against the cultivation and sale of cannabis. However, it did not bring any results beyond the growth of the statistics on the number of detentions for drug possession. When in the first decade of the 21st century it became obvious, in many circles there were voices supporting the legalization of marijuana. In 2005, 530 American economists, including Nobel Laureates Milton Friedman and George Akerlof, urged President George Bush to do this in an open letter. Of course, to no avail. The resistance of the administration lobbed by chemical and pharmaceutical companies is additionally buoyed by the American DEA drug agency, whose annual budget is more than $ 8 billion.
Jeffrey Miron, the initiator of the letter to Bush, calculated that legalising hemp consumption and the imposition of tax on consumer goods would increase State revenues by $ 3 billion per year. No need to mention the huge savings in the police, the judiciary and the penitentiary system.
Undoubtedly, the proscription of hemp was one of more cynical examples of using government agencies in the interests of big business.vi
Trinity - the codename given by Oppenheimer to the first atomic weapon test carried out at ground on July 16, 1945. The detonation of the bomb had the power of about 20 kilotons and is considered the beginning of the atomic age. The test was conducted in the desert near the city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, in a place called Jornada del Muerto by Spanish conquistadors (Spanish: road of the dead), on the training ground bearing the name of the White Sands Missile Range.
The Trinity Test was the highlight moment of several years of work on the nuclear weapon, known under the codename Project Manhattan.
Preparations for the explosion lasted almost a year. A 9 to 10 km from the designated observation point zero three shelters were built. On 7 May, 1945, the calibration test explosion with the use 108 tons of TNT mixed with the nuclear fuel was carried out. For the purposes of the experiment 30-metre steel tower was built in order to achieve approximate conditions to those that occur at the explosion of bombs discharged from the plane. The appropriate charge, bearing the codename Gadget, was delivered from Los Alamos Lab, and it was reassembled on the site next day.
The explosion was scheduled for July 16 at 4: 00. This time was moved till 5:30, because of the storm and accompanying rain. It was feared that the rain would increase the radioactive fallout, and lightning could cause uncontrolled firing of the cargo.
The final countdown started at 5:10. The explosion occurred exactly at 5:29:45. The force of the explosion was so large that it caused the windows shaking within the distance of 320 km from the point zero. The formed crater had the diameter about 300 metres and the depth of more than 3 metres. The sand at the site of the explosion completely melted, turning into a greenish radioactive glaze, then named trinitite. The mushroom cloud reached the height of about 12 kilometers. The whole event was filmed and photographed by multiple cameras deployed in different places of the training ground. There were also current measurements of the radioactive contamination and meteorology. Scientists involved in the construction of the bomb were watching the experiment from bunkers and a nearby military base. A few hours after the explosion, Oppenheimer and Fermi went to the point zero by two tanks, to visually check the effects of the explosion. They found that only fragments of reinforced concrete foundations remained on the tower, where the load had been put.
To keep the trial in secret, an official Press Release was prepared, which sounded quite likely and which said that on the training ground there had been accidental explosions in magazines of ammunition, which caused no casualties. The true cause of the explosion was revealed only after dropping the bomb on Hiroshima, and full technical report of trials was declassified only in May 1976.
President Harry Truman was waiting for test results, while participating in the Potsdam Conference at that time. He received an encoded telegram with the following content: The operation took place this morning. We lack a full diagnosis, but the results seem satisfactory, and even exceeded the initial expectations. Dr Groves is happy.
The cryptogram was about general Leslie Groves, who was the military Head of the Project Manhattan.
In 1952, the place in the vicinity of the point zero was aligned by bulldozers, and the remaining trinitite collected. In 1965, the Government of the United States entered it in the national register of historical monuments. At the point zero the obelisk of local lava was built. The area still remains closed, but twice a year, on the first Saturday of April and October “open days” for the public are held. Radiation at the site of the explosion still exceeds the standard ten times.
In 1949 the Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear test, the United Kingdom in 1952, France in 1960, China in 1964, India ten years later, and Pakistan in 1998. In 2006, North Korea conducted its nuclear test explosion. It is not certain whether the solar flare over the Indian Ocean observed on September 22, 1979, by the American satellite was a nuclear test made jointly by Israel and South Africa. There is no evidence for it, and event details are still classified. We know, however, that the two countries cooperate in the construction of the atomic bomb and that this weapon is in Israeli arsenal, and South Africa had got rid of it after the fall of apartheid.
Some countries connected carrying out nuclear tests with the research on their impact on men. Such experiments were often carried out in the Soviet Union, especially, among others at the training grounds in Totskoye, Semipalatinsk and the New Earth. Soldiers from the special, secret military units, and Gulag prisoners were used in the tests. In the 1940s and 50s of the 20th century the United States were also involved in carrying out nuclear tests on their own soldiers. The tests consisted mostly in staying at short distances from the epicentre in shallow trenches, and marching through the zone 0 in several minutes after the explosion. Similar tests were probably carried out by China. Other nuclear powers, among others the United Kingdom and France did not make nuclear weapons test on their own troops, but on local populations living on the Islands and atolls near polygons in the Pacific. As a result of the French tests on the Muroroa Atoll, cancer incidence among residents of the Tuamotu archipelago, which lies 400 miles from the atoll, is six times higher than in other parts of Polynesia. British tests on Christmas Island with no earlier evacuation of residents in 1957-1958, are the subject of the complaint to the European Parliament lodged by one of the victims, Suitupe Kiritome.
The most spectacular nuclear test, reducing the surface area of the Soviet Union about dozens of islets, which vaporized as a result of the explosion, was conducted by Russians in 1961. They exploded the largest bomb in the history of the hydrogen bombs on the Arctic archipelago of the New Earth. It had the power of 58 megatons, which is 3867 times stronger than the power of the bomb discharged on Hiroshima, and the energy produced by it was about one per cent of the power of the Sun. Before the explosion, almost at the last moment, they withdrew from adding an uranium coat, which would have increased its power twice.
The shock wave caused by the explosion went around the Earth three times. The mushroom cloud of about 60 and 40 kilometres in diameter was visible from the distance of more than 900 miles. Life-threatening burns of the third degree (the destruction of the entire skin and subcutaneous layer), could appear even a hundred miles away from the place of explosion.vii
Roswell is a city in the State of New Mexico, and it was founded as a commercial trading post by V.C. Smith in 1871. In the early 1940s of the 20th century It experienced an accelerated economic development which occurred owing to the construction of the air force base and the discovery of natural gas deposits in the 1950s.
On 8 July, 1947, Lieutenant Walter Haut, a U.S Air Force information officer at the training ground in Roxwell, handed information to the press that a crash of an other-worldly flying vehicle nearby the base occurred. At noon local time the report was released and it was seized upon by the media, it quickly caused such a deluge of questions from journalists and the public, that neither the Sheriff's Office, or the local press could deal with it. Then suddenly, to general excitement, the Air Force changed the version of the events: it was not a UFO, but a usual weather balloon. The next day the headlines definitely contradicted an earlier relationship, and photographs of the remains of the balloon popped up in newspapers for another few days.
So much for the event says the official version. Unofficial version is obviously much richer.
More moderate theory says about the crash of the strategic bomber prototype of the Lockheed U-2 on the training ground. At the beginning of the cold war, directing public attention to secret military projects was not in the interests of the army. Lt. Haut received an order to prepare a version of events that would divert attention of alien secret services from real events. The officer, however, went too far and in effect it caused such an uproar that fast intervention of the press service of the Pentagon, suggesting the version deprived of sensation that it was a meteorological balloon took place.
The best known version presents different chronology. The story began at night, on July 2, 1947, when a rancher Mac Brazel heard a loud explosion, which seemed different from the sounds of the storm just passing. Next morning, Brazel worked at the Foster’s ranch, about 120 kilometres Northwest of Roswell, and when he went to check the broken water pump, he discovered along the way that there were remarkable remains over one kilometre away. There were fragments of something, which was described then as metal or wooden rods with unusual symbols of lavender colour. The pieces were light as balsa, but you could not break them, and after bending, they immediately and automatically returned to previous position. On Sunday July 6, Brazel loaded a few objects to his old pickup truck and took them to the Sheriff in Roswell, George Wilcox, who contacted the base. An intelligence officer, major Jesse Marcel, took care of the matter and after seeing the delivered material he stated that it was very strange and unlike anything that he met during his service in World War II.
The Commander of the base, Colonel William Blanchard, issued the command to Marcel and the intelligence investigation officer Sheridan W. Cavitto to go with the rancher to the distant field and gather the remains. After reaching the place, the men filled his vehicle with such an amount of elements, which they could raise, and they moved on to the base. On the way back Marcel stopped at his home to show the remains to his wife and son Jesse Jr.
Next morning, Colonel Blanchard ordered to secure the area near Foster's farm. Numerous troops and military police thoroughly searched the area of the rancho. Going back to the base, the press officer Lt. Haut issued a statement that a flying plate was found. The message was reported by the local radio and the afternoon edition of the press. General Clements McMullen, Commander of the air force strategic wings was also informed about the issue, so he contacted Colonel Thomas Jefferson DuBose, Chief of staff in Fort Worth, and ordered him to think up a new version of the event. Has also transferred the matter to Roger Ramey, who ordered Marcel to keep silence and announced that he would take up the issue personally. Irving Newton, military meteorologist, brought a wreck of a balloon made of foil and wood fasteners, and pieces of the reflector of the probe. Marcel presented the remains, and the press was informed that there had been a mistake.
Cleaning of the surroundings of Foster’s rancho took all week. During this time, Marcel was banned to contact the press, leave the terrain of the base and speak to anyone about the discovery. The search was very intense and after two days, near the rancho, the main part of the saucer and dead bodies of unknown beings were found less than 1 km further.
In summer 1947 this information was revealed by Glenn Dennis, a mortician employed by Ballard, who provided services for the base in Roswell. The military asked him, how to deal with the "small bodies", and on his next visit he was forcibly ejected from the hospital. Dennis claimed that he met there a nurse, who told him about the "stinking bodies", which she saw during the autopsy made by two pathologists. The corpses had brownish and grey skin, big head with cracks or holes for the nose, ears and mouth, and four slim fingers without the thumb. They did not have hair, too. After repeatedly meeting Dennis, the nurse disappeared. Apparently, she moved to England. When Dennis tried to contact her by letter, his letters returned with the heading "the recipient is dead".
Meanwhile, major Marcel was ordered to transport the remains of the vehicle to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. From there they were moved to Air Force Flight Test Center, Detachment 3, created in 1951, more known under the name Zone 51.
This is a huge and heavily guarded CIA and the air force base, located in the South of Nevada, next to nuclear warfare and dried Groom salt lake. Zone 51 has the shape of a rectangle of the size of Switzerland, and the airspace above the base is considered one of the best and most secure areas of the air areas in the United States. Satellite images have shown that there is nearly 10 km, the world's longest runway. Around the year 2000 a second runway of 5.5 km was built. The zone was so secret that the U.S. Government officially confirmed the existence of this object only in 1994.
Due to great interest of the world public opinion, which in consequence allowed the surrounding residents to develop rich tourist infrastructure it is questionable that today there are works of the utmost secrecy there.
It is known that by the end of the 1980s the most famous and most modern military aircrafts: SR-71 Blackbird, the B-2 Spirit and F-117 Nighthawk and B-1 Lancer were constructed there. There was also a study of weapons produced behind the "iron curtain", among other MiG aircrafts, acquired by the different methods by Americans. The speculations about the supersonic plane called Aurora, which has the speed several times faster than sound, are also common. In addition, it was claimed that there were studies dedicated to modern energy weapons, weather control, artificially raised earthquakes, time travel, etc.
In November 1989, Robert Lazar, the constructor and the organizer of illegal Jet-powered racing cars, employed as a technician in the Zone 51, revealed that he worked in the most secret parts of the base, marked with the symbol S4, with the construction of the propulsion of flying disks. He claimed that he had seen a few flying saucers, and he had direct access to one of them. He was able to accurately describe their look, control devices and the way to get around. His words were confirmed by large number of documents, which he allegedly stole from the base. They included photos and diagrams of UFOs, and also photographs of the autopsy of alien beings. You could conclude from the documents submitted by Bob Lazar that described vehicles were intended either for children or individuals smaller a lot than people. They were supposed to be driven by the anti-gravity system, whose fuel is the element with atomic number 115. Of course, no one has discovered it yet. According to Lazar, the aliens were from the Zeta Reticuli constellation. They disclosed it themselves, because just in the Zone 51 the first contact with alien civilization and the conclusion of the USA-the Aliens Treaty was supposed to take place, according to which the alien visitors could carry out experiments on humans and animals in exchange for their technology.viii
McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II - a two-seater long-range supersonic fighter-bomber capable to operate in all weather conditions. It has been developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. Initially, it was planned to call it Satan or Mithras, but due to pressure from the Government it was decided to give it a less controversial name.
Phantoms, serving as the primary air superiority fighter and fighter-bomber for the USAF, Navy and Marine Corps during the Vietnam war, were used by the U.S. military from 1960 to 1996. In 2001, more than 1000 machines of this type still remained in service in 11 countries. By the end of their production in 1981, 5195 machines were manufactured which made Phantom the mot used American military aircraft ever built. Due to the use by the air force of many countries and very characteristic silhouette, this aircraft became one of the most recognizable machines of the cold war.
They were used during the Vietnam war and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and they won 392 times in air fights and fulfilled many tasks against the air and ground targets. F-4 Phantom fighter jet was the last American aircraft which achieved the status of the flying ace in the 20th century. During the Vietnam war the USAF and US Navy had one crew each, which could boast of bringing down 5 or more enemy machines during aerial combats. After the incident in the Gulf of Tonkin, 13 of 31 squadrons of U.S. Navy were equipped with the aircrafts. On 5 August, 1964, Phantoms taking off from the USS “Constellation" performed the first combat during the Vietnam war, the task of escorting bombers in operation Pierce Arrow. The first victory of Phantom in air fighting took place on 9 April, 1965, the machine belonging to VF-96 squadron brought down a Chinese MiG-17, and then it was mistakenly brought down by a flank aircraft. On 17 June, 1965 another F-4B of VF-21 Freelancers squadron shot down the first North Vietnamese MiG.
On 10 May, 1972, the crew of a Phantom F-4J with the sign "Showtime 100" in the composition of Randy "Duke" Cunningham (pilot) and William "Irish" Driscoll (deck officer) shot down 3 Vietnamese MiG-17 aircrafts (3rd, 4th and 5th shooting down) for which it got the title of a flying ace. It was the only U.S. Navy crew and the first American one awarded during the Vietnam war. There is a conviction that the last aircraft shot down in this mission by the crew of the Phantom was piloted by the mysterious and downright mythical Vietnamese flying ace, Nguyen Toon, called Colonel Toon. During the return flight, the plane flown by Cunningham was damaged by an anti-aircraft missile, but the crew managed to bring the machine over the Bay of Tonkin and only there to catapult.
16 squadrons of these machines were allocated for service in Vietnam in 1965-1973, and the subsequent 17 were deployed there temporarily. Phantoms grew to the largest numbers in 1972, when in Thailand 353 aircrafts of this type were deployed. During the war a total of 445 Phantoms were lost with 370 during combat missions. 193 were shot down over northern Vietnam, of which 33 were destroyed by MiGs , 30 by ground-to-air missiles, and the most (307) were shot down by anti-aircraft artillery. During the Vietnam war Phantoms showed their values and soon became the primary weapons of American air forces.
The large surface area of the wings of the machine and powerful engines allowed for getting performance comparable to much smaller and reversible MiG fighters, but the biggest advantage was provided by assistance of deck officer responsible for detecting and tracking enemy machines, both with the help of radar and visually.
In accordance with the contemporary tendency it was decided that the F-4 Phantom as the interceptor fighter would only be armed with missiles and it would be deprived of firing arms, which soon became its biggest weakness. This happened, because for a short time it was claimed that with the increase in speed of aircraft to supersonic speed, a dogfight over short distances would be impossible, and the clash would take place by using only missiles. In fact, captures of targets mainly occurred at subsonic speeds, and contemporary thermal heads at the missiles were still so unreliable that the shooting down of one target required launching of several such missiles. To make matters worse, principles used during the Vietnam war excluded the possibility of using long-range missiles without prior visual identification of the targets. There were many times when the Phantom pilots were directly behind the tail of the enemy machines, but due to too small distance they could not fire the AIM-4, Falcon or AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles guided thermally, which were their only weapons.
In the air force they have been replaced by the F-15 Eagle fighters and F-16 Fighting Falcon, and in the Navy by F-14 Tomcat and F/A-18 Hornet. Phantom was replaced in the role of a medium bomber by General Dynamics F-111 machines.
In June 2012 Turkish Phantom was shot down by Syrian anti-aircraft battery. The incident became a pretext to tighten up the political course of Turkey, silently re-arming the Syrian rebels, against the Government in Damascus.
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F-16 "Fighting Falcon"- a multirole aircraft designed by American General Dynamics. Since 1993, it has been produced by the Lockheed Corporation, now Lockheed Martin. 4459 copies were manufactured from the second half of the 70s of the 20th century to 2007.
The production of new F-16 in the U.S. should end in 2015, after completing orders from Egypt for 20 machines and the last Iraqi order for 36 machines F-16IQ. Currently, the production of 30 machines F-16 C/D assembled in Turkey by TAI is going on. Total number of produced F-16 should not exceed the number of 4540 units. The price of one copy (without weapons) for the version of the F-16 C/D was in 1998 almost 19 million USD. The unit price of a copy for Poland along with a rich suite of logistics and the most modern weapons amounted to $ 73 million, of which the value of the aircraft is about $ 35 million.
In 1993, mass production was moved to the Lockheed Corporation, after the company purchased the production department of Aviation General Dynamics. In 1995 Lockheed merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin, the group, which today is the largest manufacturer of these machines.
The Air Force of the United States are not currently interested in successive versions of the F-16, because of plans to use a newer fifth-generation fighter, the F-35, in particular, which has the features of the aircraft undetectable to radars. This does not change the fact that the project is still being developed by Lockheed Martin, which proposes a new version of the aircraft to other countries.
F-16s have repeatedly participated in various operations, as fighter-bombers and fighters. They shot down including at least 72 combat and transport aircrafts. For the first time in the fight they were used by Israel on 7 June 1981, during the attack on Osirak nuclear reactor in Iraq. The first foreign plane downed by the F-16 was a Syrian MiG-21 fighter in 1981 of the Soviet production. Total in 1981, Israeli F-16s defeated at least six MiGs-21. The next use of F-16 was in the combat in 1982 in the battle over the Bekaa Valley in the Lebanese war. United States and Israel provided information about the destruction of 44 Syrian planes.
In January 1991, there was the most numerous use of the F-16 so far in the number of 249 machines during Desert Storm operation. F-16 performed then 13 500 flights, including 4,000 ones by night. The main use of these machines were assault and bombing missions, however, they shot down two Iraqi MiGs-29 aircrafts and a MiG-25, nine aircrafts were lost, five of which were shot down, while four of them crashed for other reasons.
In 1986-1988, these aircrafts were used by Pakistan in the war in Afghanistan and they shot down four Su-22 planes, one An-26 transport aircraft, two MiGs-23 and one Su-25, which violated the airspace of Pakistan. The F-16 is currently the most widespread combat aircraft in the world.ix
In 1934, British Anglo-Persian Oil Company (later BP) and American Persian Gulf Oil have established an oil consortium Kuwait Oil Company. English politician Harold Dickson residing in Kuwait was in its Board. As an influential person in local power circles, he contributed to promoting positive relationships between the Emirate and the newly created company, which soon reached a privileged position in the region. The company could extract Kuwaiti oil at such favourable terms that it was able to effectively eliminate all competition. By 1975, the largest global mining companies became Kuwait Oil Company’s shareholders. Apart from British Petroleum Co Plc and Gulf Oil, there were Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd., Texaco / Chevron Corporation, Exxon-Mobil Corporation, Getty Oil Co. and Nippon Arabian Oil Company (AOC). The Consortium is currently the fourth world exporter of crude oil, but in 1975-2001 only a small portion of the profit from the sale flew to American and European shareholders.
In March 1975, in order to resolve the oil crisis caused by the countries belonging to OPEC, the largest importers of oil, USA and developed European countries, agreed on the nationalisation of the Kuwait Oil Company. The company became a subsidiary of the state-owned holding company Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, and in 21st article of the Constitution of Kuwait it was stipulated that all resources and profits from their production are owned by the nation. Since then, all international investments have been supervised by the State which allocates 10 per cent of income to a reserve fund for future generations (RFFG), when oil resources run out. Similar regulations have been introduced by other OPEC countries, whose deposits were dependent on Western corporates so far. They suffered heavily from the loss of a large part of their profits, and oil-exporting States became a field of intense and behind-the-scenes efforts to get access to the ever-flowing stream of petrodollars. So when in August 1990 the Iraqi army invaded and conquered Kuwait, big corporations interested in increasing their presence in the region, began to frantically wonder how to seize the opportunity to control the oil fields of the Middle East.
George Bush senior headed the White House Administration. His son and later successor as President, for a long time had deep connections with the structures of the oil industry. He previously led two mining companies dealing with extraction and sale of oil, however, he was so clumsy that they reached the verge of bankruptcy. In 1988 the takeover by the Harken Energy corporation saved them from going bankrupt. George W. Bush received a place in the Supervisory Board and the salary of 120 thousand dollars a year. The Presidents of the group counted in return for political connections, necessary to obtain favourable contracts in the Gulf. Soon, with the Bush’s help Harken Energy got permission to search for and extract oil off the coast of Bahrain. The company stock price rocketed and future President quickly sold his package, earning 850 thousand dollars. When it turned out that Bahrain does not have oil, the stock price dropped to 25 per cent of the previous value. Bush was accused of illegal use of classified information in the stock manipulation, but these allegations have never been proved.
Having gained a considerable capital, Bush junior decided to deal with politics in accordance with the family tradition. When he started his efforts to take over the position of the Governor of Texas, his election fund received generous subsidies from Texaco and Exxon Mobil. These funds allowed him to defeat rivals and win the election without major problems. As Governor, he had to somehow return the favour. Owing to his decision, the State Environmental Protection and Monitoring of Air Pollution Act project, was written under the dictation of the oil companies and coal-fired plants. This strange text, approved by Bush’s administration, did not oblige them to any restrictions. At that time, the city of Odessa, Texas, was so enveloped in dense smoke from chimneys and exhaust pipes that residents had to turn on lights at noon.
During his presidential campaign, Bush could count on even greater support of oil companies. After winning the election, the new host of the White House showed his gratitude to them by giving his approval to drill in the area of nature reserves in Alaska and by the decision of the U.S. not to access the Kyoto climate convention. It is worth mentioning that the United States, where about 4 per cent of the people of the world live, are responsible for over 25 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Bush had the full backing of members of his administration. From 1995 to 2000 Vice President Dick Cheney headed the Halliburton company - the world's largest company producing platforms and equipment for the oil industry. The company reached a turnover of more than 17 billion dollars a year. Cheney used his political friends to gain lucrative contracts in the Arab world. Halliburton sold machines, through European intermediaries, even to Iraq, then the mortal enemy of America. The official claimed that he did not know about these transactions, but when he left to take a position in the White House, he received the high severance package in shares and cash of $ 36 million. Taking a position of Vice President he sold the shares, and soon when Halliburton due to creative accounting was in trouble, again those allegations about financial machinations could not be proved.
Condoleezza Rice, before she was nominated the Security Adviser, sat in the Supervisory Board of the Chevron Texaco, she had the package of 250 thousand shares of the company, and even the giant oil tanker was named after her. Donald Evans, Secretary of Department of Trade, was previously Director of the Tom Brown Inc. energy company. The U.S. Ambassador in London, Douglas Farish, is a successor of the oil men aristocratic family from Texas. His grandfather headed the Standard Oil company.
Many suspect that "Oil Government" led the policy of implementation of the wishes of corporations seeking new sources of petrodollars, and operations in Kuwait and Iraq, and the whole "war on terrorism" were in fact a cover to ensure the access to sources of cheap oil for long decades.
The purpose of Desert Storm operation, carried out five months after invading Kuwait by Iraqi troops, was to restore access to its deposits under the terms of the pre-1975 period for American companies. Bush’s Administration had relied on this form of gratification for the liberation of the country. But the negotiation proceeded very slowly, and the Government of Kuwait opened the door to the American corporations only in 2001. The enthusiasm of oil men, shaken by the decade delay quickly faded when it turned out that Kuwait oil resources were heavily overstated and their excavation would not bring profit to the expected level. Then, in the circles of power the idea to gain the Iraqi oil appeared.
Bush’s Administration did not trust the Saudi allies and the opportunity to have access to Iraqi deposits seemed extremely tempting then. Therefore, when the situation in Afghanistan after the initial successes of "fair" military operation achieved relative stability, George W. Bush issued an ultimatum to Saddam Hussein. His most important and, as it turned out later, illusionary points were the elimination of the alleged weapons of mass destruction and terrorist bases. Bush's ultimatum included also the clause about the "humanitarian" securing the oil fields and other natural resources of Iraq and it eventually proved to be the real goal of the war.
On March 20, 2003, the Iraqi Freedom operation began, as a result of which Iraq was under occupation of the United States assisted by other coalition States, having hope for profits on their part.
Finally, the simultaneous operation, which quickly changed into the debilitating guerrilla war, turned out to be beyond the ability even of such a power as the United States. The costs of long-term maintenance of numerous military units in Afghanistan and Iraq have exceeded the profits, which the American economy takes from access to Iraqi oil. Their distant echo is the economic crisis, which deeply touched America in 2008 and overflowed into the related European markets. The current economic crisis in the European Union gave reasons for the belief about the twilight of the Western domination. China and India and now Brazil are in the foreground of the changing world stage.x
The K-141 "Kursk" nuclear submarine which was designed to combat large marine units, especially Western aircraft carriers, sank along with the entire 118 persons of crew and eleven observers on board on Saturday, 12 August, 2000. The official cause was a fuel leak from one of the torpedoes, which sparked a fire, and then the explosion of ammunition.
Great Northern Fleet manoeuvres in the Barents Sea, during which the disaster occurred, apart from the demonstration of force of the reborn Russian Navy after the collapse of Yeltsin period, aimed at testing Squall state-of-the-art torpedoes. This is a type of an underwater rocket, which moves in the gas bubble, so that it does not encounter resistance of water and it can accelerate to the speed of up to 200 knots (370 km/h). The torpedoes used so far could reach the top speed of 70 knots and a ship, in the direction of which they were fired, had the chance to avoid the hit. The underwater missiles were to be sold to China and Chinese officers watched the manoeuvres from the "Peter the Great" Russian Cruiser.
The sale of the Squall torpedoes to the Chinese would be a huge blow to the USA, of course, as it would break the balance of power in the Pacific and South-East Asia.
Russians realized that their manoeuvres were closely tracked by the armies of Western states, including two American "Memphis" and "Toledo" nuclear-powered submarines. When "Kursk" was to carry out the test, Americans took a risk, and trying to thwart the launching of the torpedoes before the eyes of the Chinese officers, they started to disturb Russians. First the "Toledo" dangerously approached the "Kursk", performing the manoeuvres disturbing the visibility. There was a collision, and Russians and Americans became nervous. The "Memphis" located nearby, which followed the entire situation on the radar screens, recorded the sound of the opening of torpedo hatch of "Kursk". At this point, the American commander decided to activate the Mk 48 uranium torpedo. The bullet hit the Russian ship, there was a powerful explosion of ammunition and the destroyed unit went to the bottom.
The American ships, both damaged - the "Toledo" in collision with "Kursk", and "Memphis" by a shock wave from the explosion - started immediately to escape from the place of the event. The Russians jumped in the air two aircraft squadrons for anti-submarine warfare, however, before the bombing of the US Navy units they were to stop by the personal order of Vladimir Putin.
From the first minutes after the crash the Russian-American consultations at the highest level lasted. Then, the head of CIA, George Tenet, who at all costs was supposed to prevent the escalation of the conflict, flew to Moscow. Tenet acknowledged that the Americans were the first to open fire in panic. Putin, who was then at the origins of the helm of power, was keen on good relations with U.S. So, he decided to suppress the entire matter. During the talks it was decided not to disclose the information about the event to the media. The first official reports appeared only on Monday, two days after the disaster. Later, there had been a whole series of false information. From the beginning any suggestions for the American footprint were undermined.
Soon, the United States cancelled a Russian debt and granted Moscow a long-term loan of 10 billion dollars. The "Kursk" case was officially closed, and few people who tried to publicize the version about the American attack, were removed from service. Many Russian admirals still have a claim to Putin that he did not allow for a nuclear counterattack.
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When "Kursk" fell down to the bottom, the 23 seafarers working from sixth to ninth sections, who survived after the series of explosions and a fire, gathered in the ninth section waiting for help. Since nuclear reactors automatically switched off and the battery emergency power supply soon ran out, they remained in total darkness and with less and less oxygen. It is not known how long the trapped people lived. Probably, the cause of their death was the fire of the chemical set to purify the air from carbon dioxide and to enrich it with oxygen which was discovered on the bodies.
One of the three officers, who survived the explosion, Dmitri Kolesnikov, recorded the names of the survivors, and before his death he left the last note: It is too dark, but I'll try to write grope. I think there is no chance, 10-20 per cent. We hope that someone will read it. Below there is a list of people from the crew from other sections, who gathered in the ninth and will be trying to get out. Greetings to all, no need to despair. Kolesnikov.xi
On 26 February, 1993, in the Northern Tower of the World Trade Center a truck filled with 682 kilograms of explosives (ammonium nitrate), parked in an underground garage, exploded. As a result of the assassination attempt 6 people were killed, and more than a thousand were injured.
The leader of the terrorists, Ramzi Yousef, and five Islamic extremists responsible for the attack, were convicted to 240 years in prison each in 1997 and 1998.
As a result of the attack security provisions have significantly been strengthened: in the towers the crisis staff was introduced and the Special Squad was equipped with dogs to recognize the presence of explosives. Additional fire extinguishers and modern smoke detectors along with the alarm were installed. Trial evacuations of employees carried out every 6 months have significantly improved the security conditions there.
Under the World Trade Center there were some of the world's largest deposits of gold, kept there by a group of banks. The bomb exploded near the Treasury in 1993, but it failed to destroy it. The value of gold stored in that period was estimated at one billion dollars (official figures were not available, of course), later there was probably still more precious metal.
The coup of September 11, 2001 was a series of four terrorist attacks, carried out in the morning on Tuesday September 11, 2001, using carried passenger aircrafts. It was made out by 19 hijackers, who bought tickets for the 4 domestic flights of American Airlines.
It was found that the total number of killed persons in the assassination was 2973 people, not including the 19 hijackers, and 26 people are still officially considered missing. In determining the number of victims and their identities, for the first time in history the genetic material was used on a massive scale, which was virtually the only way to identify the remains of victims.
The attacks of September 11 were a direct cause of the start of the so-called "war on terror", whose the first stage was the attack on Afghanistan ruled by the Taliban, and the tightening up of security measures (including the airports) and the introduction of anti-terrorist laws in many countries, which in some cases restrict civil rights. There are opinions, that American authorities used the assassination attempt to justify the attacks on Afghanistan and Iraq, and gain more control over society.
On May 16, 2002, the former Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice stated at a press conference on September 11 that no one was able to foresee a situation in which terrorists would serve up planes, and hit the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, using them as missiles. Proponents of conspiracy theories claim that this statement departs from the truth.
The U.S. has a very advanced system of rapid response in the event of an unauthorized air space violations called NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command). The NORAD centre, originally built inside the Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado Springs and currently located at Peterson Air Force base, among others deals with detection and warning against all kinds of attacks, air or satellite strikes. Because of the importance of the processed and provided information to other command levels of the American army the NORAD is one of the best guarded objects on the American continent.
According to the official version, on September 11, the system failed in all fields. The analysis of the related causes and circumstances provide arguments supporting the thesis that this was not an accident. Information that NORAD trained earlier the response to assassinations, whose scenario would resemble this of the September 11, 2001, appeared in the media after the attacks.
In November 1999, the NORAD exercises as a part of the operation Falcon Indian were held. Their plan was to kidnap a transcontinental airliner belonging to the Chinese airlines by five terrorists, and then break it down on the seat of the United Nations in New York. Between October 24 and 26, 2000, scenarios under the code-name MASCAL, taking into account hitting the Pentagon by a passenger aircraft were prepared at the headquarters of the Department of Defense. On June 5, 2000, NORAD conducted a simulation within exercises under the code-name Falcon Indian in which a large airliner hit the White House and the Statue of Liberty. On October 2000, the 16 and 20, the NORAD conducted exercises within the operation Vigilant Guardian taking into account the attacks with the use of airplanes. The scenario of October 16 assumed hijacking of an aircraft belonging to Federal Express and using it for the suicide attack on the UN headquarters in New York (de facto several miles from the WTC "twin towers"). Five minutes before the attack on Pentagon, the internal intelligence agency carried out an exercise taking into account the use of an aircraft and breaking it down on the building 20 miles further. In the morning of September 11, John Fulton, along with his CIA team carried out a simulation of rapid response previously planned for this day in the case, when a plane would hit the building of the Government. After the real attack the exercises were interrupted. The Government later described them as a "strange coincidence".
The conspiracy theories about the attacks of September 11, 2001, suggest that the Government of the United States is responsible, directly or indirectly, for the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Some people telling this kind of theories believe that the administration of the Government of President Bush did nothing to prevent the attacks, others say outright that the bombings were planned and carried out by governmental internal services.
In May 2008, the "Life" weekly published an article, according to which 46% of Americans do not believe in the version of events given by the official sources nearly 7 years after the attacks. Almost half of Americans, including many scientists and politicians, calls for a renewed investigation of the September 11 attacks.
They maintain that no steel construction has never collapsed due to fire. Meanwhile, on September 11, 2001, two WTC main towers and standing nearby a WTC7 47-storey building collapsed, which was not directly hit. WTC7 was burning for a few hours before it was laid in ruins, but compared with other fires of skyscrapers, which consequently were not completely destroyed (Philadelphia 1991 – a fire lasting 18 hours, Madrid 2005 - fire lasting around 10 hours), in this building the fire alarm system did not work because of the lack of water. In the case of mentioned long-lasting fires of buildings of similar construction in Madrid and Philadelphia, the collapse of the floors above the fire floor did not cause the building collapse to the lowest level.
In the case of buildings WTC1 and WTC2, known as the "Twin Towers", the fire caused by the hitting of the aircrafts did not last long and it did not cause the long-term increase of temperature. The proof is in these pictures and the film close-ups of buildings, where you could see people standing in the holes at the level of the ground waving to people outside.
In fact, computer simulations show that the temperature of the fires was more than 1000 ° c.
According to the conspiracy theory, the Twin Towers and WTC7 were destroyed with the use of controlled detonation of explosives. However, according to the official report by the National Institute of Standards and Technology there is no evidence of the use of any explosives.
Under the banner of prior knowledge the speculation about the information proving that the elected US Government officials previously knew about the attacks and their scenario. This issue was raised in the film Fahrenheit 9.11. Speculation also apply to the information about financial operations just before September 11.
The BBC and Reuters news agency wrongly informed about WTC7 collapse more than 20 min before this event, which according to proponents of conspiracy theories proves the prior knowledge of the attacks. According to the BBC, it was a journalist’s mistake and incorrect information received from Reuters. Reuters News Agency released a statement that the information about the collapse of the WTC7 building was given by the local agency and without the verification it was passed on.
According to some conspiracy theories, no Jew was killed in the attack. It is to prove that Jews knew about the assassination and had been warned, or even that it was prepared by them. In fact in the assassination about 400 people belonging to this nation were killed. This theory is supported by the fact that the list of victims includes only one person with the Israeli citizenship and it makes a guess that the attack, carried out by the Mossad secret cell was to rebuild the falling support among Americans for Israel's hard policy against Palestinians and unfriendly Arab neighbours.
Most of the theories assume that the conspiratorial activities of the US Government agencies aimed to induce artificial crisis atmosphere which was adding to the on-going threat. It was to aim at neutralizing the opposition and obtaining a social consent for the change and restrictions of freedoms, for which people would never have agreed in normal conditions. An indication of the external perpetrators of the assassination was to distract the society's attention from the activities planned on the U.S. territory. It was also a convenient excuse to carry out military operations in sensitive areas of the world, rich in oil, or having a strategic location close to competing countries with nuclear arsenals: Russia, Pakistan, India and China. This allowed free funding of the arms industry and justified aggressive policy against so embarrassing countries like Iraq or North Korea.xii
It started with the theory of an artificial fog at the Smolensk airport, tampering with lamps, helium sprayed over the airport, a fuel bomb, a deliberate blocking the Tu-154 ailerons remote control (the device that is allegedly mounted during the renovation of the machine in Russia). And of two explosions-shaking on its board (the first one ripped the wing, the second one ripped the hull), and it ends – so far – on the electronic misleading the navigation devices by secret transmitters. The Russians were, after all, great specialists in the MIJI (Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming and Interference). This method consists in recording the navigation signal and resending it (with a slight offset in time and with greater effect) on the same frequency in order to mislead the crew of the aircraft. The result is confusion and getting incorrect tracking indicators by the air or ground crew. In this way, you can get caught up in the trap, send the pilot of the aircraft to a false target, and even cause the disaster. Marek Strassenburg-Kleciak (a Polish system of three-dimensional navigation specialist working in Germany), and Hans Dodel (German expert on navigation and electronic warfare systems, author of the book "Satellitennavigation") hypothesized in the "Gazeta Polska" that the Tu-154 was just a victim of such an attack on the navigation instruments.
Since the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center meaconing has been used in almost all countries of the world, among others to protect the objects of special importance, such as nuclear plants and Government facilities. In the case of the Tu-154 which was approaching to land, a slight malfunction would lead to tragedy.
Antoni Maciarewicz, the man of the disturbing superficiality and the eyes of a madman, became the head of the Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry, which was to show that the Government aircraft with dignitaries on board crashed as a result of the Russian conspiracy. For more than two years which had passed since the date of the accident, he has shown genuine inventiveness and unflagging zeal in searching possible scenarios of the assassination. Perhaps he wishes to repair his image as a patriot and providential man undermined by his insufficiently decent attitude at the moments just after the fall of the plane. Then, in the immediate vicinity of the on-going rescue operation, consisting in collecting the remains of the victims, he urged the group of a bit hungry presidential Members of Parliament to go to the car in order to drive to a restaurant for dinner ordered earlier.
The birch, which in this case is obvious, did not play a significant role in the crash, because the wood is too soft to threaten the wing of, surely, the slowly descending machine.
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Reading of the press and online forums fostering the conspiracy version of events clearly shows that this story will not quickly end.
In the last days of October 2012 the hypothesis about the explosions on the board of the aircraft, enriched with the vision of the execution of the members of the presidential entourage, who have survived the collapse of the machine, returned with unprecedented power. The prelude of the flowering, manifested in the autumn wave of the exhumation and the publication of drastic photos of the victims on Russian servers returned along with the mysterious suicide of an important witness in the case, a Government engineer of the Jak-40 who landed on the unlucky airport dozens of minutes before the Tupolev crash.
At the time when I write these words, the headlines of most portals have reported that traces of TNT, nitro-glycerine and other explosive substances had been discovered on the wing trims of the crashed plane and in its interior, including the thirty seats passengers.
All of this coincides with a parliamentary offensive of the right wing that is consolidating around the Smolensk drama and it seems to recognize that repeated and persistent repetition of any of thesis will also make that sooner or later they become a generally accepted fact.xiii
Hunt for Cow
MQ-9 Reaper is an unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), produced by the General Atomic Aeronautical Systems company and it is mainly used by the United States Air Force and the RAF. MQ-9 is the first machine known as the "hunter-killer".
In 2006, Air Force Base has set up the first unit armed with MQ-9 Reaper at Creech. It was the 42 Attack Squadron, which a year later was included in the 432 Air Expeditionary Wing fitted only with unmanned drones. This unit is used to act in conflict areas, which today are Iraq and Afghanistan. The first mission of the Reaper was made on 25 September, 2007. The same year, on October 28, the first fire attack with the use of this machine, which destroyed the vehicle of Afghan rebels, took place. By 6 March, 2008, the drones struck 16 goals in Afghanistan. On July 17, 2008, they debuted in Iraq.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection, whose Reapers stay in Sierra Vista, Arizona, and Grand Forks in North Dakota, is the next institution using those machines. During their service the machines contributed to capturing several tons of marijuana and the arrests of several thousand illegal immigrants.
In 2012, American Reapers, apart from Afghanistan and Iraq stayed in Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Philippines and in Seychelles. It is worth noting that the program for the construction and use of drones has been successfully led by Israel.
Rodney Brossart, a farmer of the town of Lakota in North Dakota and his three sons, are the first citizens of the United States, against whom a drone was used on the territory of this country.
On June 23, 2011, six cows, which came to the Brossarts’ pasture and began to eat grass intended for their animals, fled from Chris Anderson’s ranch. When Anderson found them, he demanded returning the cattle. However, Rodney, as the head of the Brossarts family cited the damage done by the escaped cows and declared that he would keep them until an appropriate reward were received. Anderson went to the police with a complaint. On the same day, the sheriff Eric Braathen and his Deputy Fred Frederickson went to the Brossarts’ farm to recover the cows. But before they got there, they met old Rodney at the petrol station, who repeated that he would not give animals without compensation. The police officers threatened, that they would use force, and the farmer replied that if they enter his ground they would not leave it alive. The officers rushed on him shouting that he was arrested and overpowered him with electric paralyser.
When the police came again to the farm with an injunction, Rodney’s three sons greeted them with rifles. The brothers did it so effectively that the sheriff with his deputy had to flee, abandoning their police car on the grounds. To this point, everything proceeded in accordance with customs prevailing in the Midwest. But later, it was unusually. The sheriff called in the help of a distant SWAT unit from not very distant Grand Forks. Before the assault on the Brossarts’ ranch, an unmanned aircraft lent by the Federal Department Security watched farmers from the air. Next morning, without a single shot being fired, cows were recaptured and returned to Anderson, and the sons joined his father in custody. The prosecution accused them of inter alia the theft and terrorizing the sheriff.
It is expected that soon the drones will fly over America routinely. They are much cheaper and much more effective than helicopters or planes. Washington is currently developing detailed rules for the use of unmanned aircraft by governmental authorities and private companies.
It is believed that the use of drones, apart from the increased effectiveness of military operations while reducing their costs, shall make it possible for the countries that possess them to start wars. A pilot of such a machine directs it, sitting with a joystick in his hand before the monitor of a computer. He may carry out an attack on, say, the Taliban crossing the border of Pakistan from the room at the base, situated on the territory of the United States. In the event of shooting down, his life will not be affected in any way, in contrast to soldiers operating in the area of conflict. The public will not be too much interested in the piles of scrap remaining after the destroyed Reapers. The war conducted in this way will be more like a game on a "PlayStation", and not an actual action, though opponents will really die. It will also be difficult to blame anyone for the responsibility for mistakes or deliberately committed crimes, for example, the attack on a school. The fault may lie on the side of the officer's action, or the general, issuing him orders, or a politician who implements his objectives. But all of them may dump the responsibility on the programmer of the drone operating system, the engineers who designed the drone, or the labourer, who wrongly mounted one of the elements the device.
The research centres work on autonomous ethical system, which is supposed to prevent an attack when innocent civilians can die. It's hard, however, to imagine an army, which wants to have on the excellent and effective weapon, which does not carry out the orders.xiv
Those who expect that this text tends to some conclusions of the conspiracy theory of history, summarizing the issues, shall be deeply disappointed. The threads gathered here are more or less closely associated with series of the images and the "New World Order" aquatints, on which I have worked since 2010, and which I consider not to be closed, and the text was created in order to describe their related content. This is probably neither my first, nor the last reference to this iconographic theme. The origins of this interest date back to 1992 and the "Psalm 69" disc of the Ministry band, with the “N.W.O” song. I associated the concept of the "New World Order" then with the a policy of the cold war ended not long ago, and I only discovered the system of counter-culture and anti-government theories of conspiracy emerging in American fundamentalist Christian circles with wonder a few years later, after gaining access to the Internet. NWO has turned out to be a good source of themes and iconography, in which absurd threads are treated with deadly seriousness. The absurdity of this construction, the alternative to the generally accepted explanation of the processes occurring in the world, with time seemed to me so “poisonous”, that it would be difficult for me to make fun of those concepts as a whole at the moment. Therefore, I decided to take tons of cool and - if possible - an objective report in the works of the cycle and the accompanying text. I am also fully aware of the fact that the inventiveness of different minds is unlimited in this field and, in this connection with that, a set of themes included here is far incomplete. Constantly expanding "List of conspiracy theories" in Wikipedia has already included about a hundred of threads, at least half of which seems worth the interest. From my point of view, where conspiracy theories are the source of inspiration for the activity of creating images, it is a favourable situation.
In the "New World Order", among others, topics related to the Phantom and F-16 aircrafts, and the history of nuclear testing, which are hard to associate with the leitmotif of the series, have been included. Well, as the author, I am not going to explain this – I believe that the declaration "that I have considered it to be right" should be enough there.
The issue of Jews is a separate and very extensive thread. The amount of plots, prejudices and distortions related to them is enormous, and almost “genetically” inherent in the history and culture of the world. In the course of the work I considered that the omission of this issue would be a “dishonest” failure and despite the lack of sufficient competence I devoted an extensive annex to it. In order to understand the role that Jews have played and still play in the consciousness of societies, which over thousands of years encountered their culture, I felt it necessary to go back until 63 B.C. when the processes, as a result of which the scattering of the Jewish community all over the known world, launched. The enormity of the material, which I was to face, caused that "Jews" chapter, which should preserve a reasonable proportion to the issue, may shock the reader with its selectiveness and brevity of information, and it so much has outgrown the appropriate size for this publication. So, I decided to include here only a small fragment of the text devoted to the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion". The whole text can be found on the website http://tdnwo.blogspot.com/ .
I've tried to verify all theses and information contained in this publication each time on the base of at least two different, the most desirably, opposing sources, but as this work has no scientific ambitions, and its main theme is, after all, conspiracy theories, I decided to use almost exclusively the data in the network, which is now the main forum for conspiracy theory of history. Therefore, the content of the entire text must contain a large number of half-truths, overinterpretations and the total absurdities.
At the beginning I assumed that in order to construct this essay I'll use the patchwriting technique, described by Kenneth Goldsmith in The Chronicle of Higher Education, and raised to the rank of a fully-fledged literary methods by American writer and lecturer Jonathan Letham. It involves combining other people's texts, verbatim paraphrased or taken over, in the style of a coherent whole. According to the two men, contrary to appearances, it is a culmination of the long lasting and stimulating creativity, tradition of stealing, citing, copying and imitating which is present in the culture from the beginning of its existence.
Ultimately, I failed to realize this objective and this text – with some exceptions – is deprived of borrowings copied directly from the sources provided in the end.
In the end I was to explain the origin of the title "Episode IV", which exist in the longer version of the text on internet website, but ultimately I have abandoned this intention.xv
Juan Carlos Castillón “Panowie świata – dzieje teori spiskowych”, ed.: Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa 2006,
Juan Carlos Castillón “Panowie świata – dzieje teori spiskowych”, ed.: Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa 2006,
Juan Carlos Castillón “Panowie świata – dzieje teori spiskowych”, ed.: Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa 2006,
Juan Carlos Castillón, Napoleon i Żydzi (...) w “Panowie świata – dzieje teori spiskowych”, ed.: Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa 2006, ISBN 978-83-7469-591-6
Bartłomiej Kuraś “Pollack co nie wychwala Galicji”, Gazeta Wyborcza, 08. 10. 2012, ed.: Agora, ISSN 0860-908X
Przemysław Henzel „Nowy Porządek Świata. Horror, który czeka ludzkość” http://wiadomosci.onet.pl/kiosk/ciekawostki/nowy-porzadek-swiata-horror-ktory-czeka-ludzkosc,1,3352994,wiadomosc.html
Andrzej Fedorowicz „Co w trawie leczy”, Focus nr 5/200, may 2012, ed. G+J Polska, ISSN 1234-9992
Krzysztof Kęciek http://www.przeglad-tygodnik.pl/pl/artykul/bialy-dom-pachnie-ropa
Mariusz Janicki, Wiesław Władyka, http://www.polityka.pl/kraj/analizy/1526147,1,dlaczego-tusk-musi-sie-tlumaczyc-ze-smolenska.read#ixzz1xK1KH5NO
Mariusz Zawadzki „Drony walczą o krowy”, Gazeta Wyborcza / Agora, Fr. 06. 15. 2012, ISSN 0860-908X
„Etyka zabijania”, wywiad Jarosława Marczuka, Gazeta Wyborcza / Agora, Fr. 07. 20. 2012, ISSN 0860-908X
Kenneth Goldsmith, „It's not plagiarism. In digital age, it's 'repurposing'.” w The Chronicle of Higher Education, 09. 11. 2011, http://chronicle.com/article/Uncreative-Writing/128908/
Michał Rusinek, „Przekonać, uwieść, zwieść, zmanipulować”, Gazeta Wyborcza, 04. 27. 2012, ed. Agora, ISSN 0860-908X
Availability of the Internet sources: June 26 – August 28, 2012.
Translated by Marek Oktawian Bulanowski